# Algorithmen und Datenstrukturen by Kai-Uwe Sattler

By Kai-Uwe Sattler

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Additional resources for Algorithmen und Datenstrukturen

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It does not occur as such in the coal but is formed as the result of chemical changes that take place in the mineral matter during the ashing process. The quantity of ash can be more than, equal to, or less than the quantity of mineral matter in coal, depending on the nature of the mineral matter and the chemical changes that take place in ashing. There are two types of ash forming materials in coal, extraneous mineral matter and inherent mineral matter. The extraneous mineral matter consists of materials such as calcium, magnesium, and ferrous carbonates, pyrite, marcasite, clays, shales, sand, and gypsum.

In an ultimate analysis, it is calculated by subtracting the sum of the as-determined percentages of C, H, N, S, and ash from 44 ROUTINE COAL AND COKE ANALYSIS 100. This estimated value is affected by errors incurred in the determinations of the values for the other elements and by changes in the weight of the ash-forming constituents on ignition. The oxygen value calculated as a weight percentage of the analysis sample according to this procedure does not include the oxygen in the ash but does include the oxygen in the moisture associated with the analysis sample.

The ASTM speciﬁcations call for air drying on a drying ﬂoor at room temperature or in a drying oven at temperatures 10– 15 ° C above room temperature, with a maximum of 40 ° C. The practice of using temperatures above room temperature may accelerate oxidation but shortens the time needed for air drying, which reduces total exposure of the coal and decreases the chances of oxidation. The shorter exposure time should compensate for the use of the elevated temperature. In very warm climates or on very warm days in moderate climates, it may not be possible to conduct air-drying experiments without exceeding the recommended maximum temperature.