By Darwin C. G.

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QCA computes by mapping the energy ground state of the QCA array to the logic solution of the problem. The input cells of the QCA array are in fixed polarization, the entire array is then allowed to relax to its ground state. The output is read by sensing the state of the output cells. What distinguishes input cells from output cells is the fact that input cells are held in fixed polarization while the output cells are allowed to switch to whatever polarization that achieves system ground state [1].

54] Chang, L. , L. Esaki, and R. Tsu, “Resonant tunneling in semiconductor double barriers,” Appl. Phys. , Vol. 24, No. 12, 1974, pp. 593. [55] Liu, H. C. and T. C. L. G. Sollner, “High-frequency Resonant Tunneling Devices,” High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Semiconductors and Semimetals series, Vol. 41, pp. A. G. Sollner (eds), New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994. ,Vol. 8, 1993, pp. 400-402. 36 References [57] Mathews, R. , “A New RTD-FET Logic Family,” Proc. IEEE,Vol. 87, No. 4, 1999, pp. 596-605.

An analysis of these thermal effects on a line of N QCA cells is provided in [1]. It has been shown in [1] that for reliable kink-free computation, within a single Ek clocking zone, N is bound by e kB T . Large QCA circuits are therefore partitioned into smaller subcircuits, each of which resides in its own clocking zone. The clock signal is commonly generated by CMOS wires buried under the QCA circuitry. 14 depicts the schematic diagram for clocking a 3-dot molecular QCA array [28]. QCA molecules are located in the xz plane and clock wires are placed in the z direction, thus inducing an electrical field in the y direction.