By Crina Anastasescu, Susana Mihaiu, Silviu Preda, Maria Zaharescu
This e-book offers rainy chemical sol-gel and hydrothermal equipment for 1D oxide nanostructure guidance. those tools symbolize an enticing path to multifunctional nanomaterials synthesis, as they're flexible, low-cost and, therefore, applicable for acquiring a variety of oxide fabrics with adapted morphology and houses. 3 particular oxides (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO) are mentioned intimately for you to illustrate the primary of the sol-gel and hydrothermal training of 1D oxide nanostructures. different oxides synthesized through this technique also are in brief offered.
Throughout the e-book, the correlation among the tubular constitution and the physico-chemical houses of those fabrics is highlighted. 1D oxide nanostructures show fascinating optical and electric homes, as a result of their restrained morphology. moreover, a well-defined geometry should be linked to chemically lively species. for instance, the natural SiO2 nanotubes provided a moderate photocatalytic task, whereas the Pt-doped SiO2 tubular fabrics act as microreactors in catalytic reactions. with regards to titania and titanate nanotubes, huge particular floor quarter and pore quantity, ion-exchange skill, more advantageous mild absorption, and quickly electron-transport power have attracted major learn curiosity. The chemical and actual changes (microwave assisted hydrothermal equipment) mentioned the following enhance the formation kinetics of the nanotubes. The ZnO nanorods/tubes have been ready as random debris or as huge parts of small, orientated 1D ZnO nanostructures on numerous substrates. within the latter case a sol-gel layer is deposited at the substrate sooner than the hydrothermal practise. utilizing applicable dopants, coatings of ZnO nanorods with managed electric habit should be obtained.
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Extra info for 1D Oxide Nanostructures Obtained by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods
Zhu et al.  have proposed a technology through which the hydrothermal treatment was coupled with the sonication, the duration of the synthesis being shortened from 20 to 4 h. A similar result was obtained by Ma et al. . Wang et al.  were the first to establish that the TiNT structure could be rapidly obtained using microwave irradiation. Their results were confirmed by Wu et al. [34, 122]. The effect of the treatment time, the NaOH concentration, the irradiation power, and the Ti precursor on the characteristic of the TiNTs were subsequently investigated , confirming that the structure of the nanotubes could be assigned to the anatase phase.
1 Factors Influencing the Hydrothermal Synthesis of Titanate Nanotubes As mentioned before, the morphology and the characteristics of the titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) highly depend on the hydrothermal conditions, namely, the type of the titanium precursors, the type of the alkaline solutions and concentration, the hydrothermal temperature, and the duration of the treatments, as well as on the post-hydrothermal procedures. 1 3 Synthesis of Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods by Hydrothermal Method Effect of Titanium Precursors and the Alkaline Solutions There are extensive literature data regarding the synthesis of titanate-based nanotubes and derived nanostructures, starting from various precursors, such as amorphous powder [69, 77, 78], anatase [30, 39, 69, 79, 80], rutile [45, 81, 82], anatase and rutile mixture [44, 69, 83, 84], molecular Ti-alkoxide , or Ti metal foil [85–87], obtaining different phases and compositions: monoclinic trititanates, H2Ti3O7 ; orthorhombic titanates, Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 ; tetratitanates, H2Ti4O9 ; monoclinic TiO2-B ; or tetragonal anatase .
7, □—vacancy) [25, 66, 70–73] In all cases the diffraction lines of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns are broadened, usually due to the nanometric crystallite size of the TiNTs . Regardless of the crystal structure, the TiNTs pattern is characterized by four typical diffraction lines, positioned at 2θ ~ 10 , 24 , 28 , and 48 . A very broad diffraction line positioned at around 10 corresponds to the interlayer distance, d(200) [27, 75], of the layered structure TiNTs walls which depends on sodium content.